Why It Takes So Long to Diagnose Ankylosing Spondylitis

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SOURCES:

Carlos Julio Aponte, MD, board-certified rheumatologist and American College of Rheumatology member.

David Borenstein, MD, medical professor of medication, George Washington University Medical Center; spouse, Arthritis and Rheumatism Associates, Washington, DC; government editor, spinecommunity.com.

UpToDate: “Diagnosis and differential analysis of axial spondyloarthritis (ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis) in adults,” “Pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis.”

National Health Service (U.Okay.): “Ankylosing spondylitis.”

Spondylitis Association of America: “Diagnosis of Ankylosing Spondylitis.”

Johns Hopkins Arthritis Center: “Ankylosing Spondylitis.”


Current Rheumatology Reports: “Gender Differences in Axial Spondyloarthritis: Women Are Not So Lucky.”

Stanford Healthcare: “How is Ankylosing Spondylitis recognized?”

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